## Wednesday, April 10, 2013

### Capacitor Code Calculator

Capacitor is a two terminal passive electrical component. It is used to store energy in an electrical field. Capacitor works as a voltage source.  The capacitor is used widely and its forms contains at least two electrical conductor separated by a dielectric material, one common construction consists of metal foils separated by a thin layer of insulating film. In electrical circuit capacitors are widely used as a parts.
The static electric field develops across the Di-electric when the voltage or potential difference is applied across the terminals. This occurs when negative charge is on one plate and positive charge on the other plate. Mainly electrical energy is stored in the electrostatic field.  An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value capacitance and measured in farads. So we need to know the measurements of capacitor value using the figure. For more information go wikipedia.

## Monday, February 4, 2013

### Remote Control Regulated Ceiling Fan Circuit Diagram

The main objectives are - to control the switch using remote as an on/off switch. To determine that the infrared sensor can easily receive the signal from the remote transmitter and to control the Fan speed using regulator.
The 38 kHz infrared rays generated by the remote control are received by IR receiver. Pin 2 of IR is connected to ground, pin 3 is connected to the power supply through R1 and the output is taken from pin 1. The output pulse is set to pin 2 of 555 timers.
Then in pin 2 if the voltage is less than one third of Vcc, a trigger pulse is active.The pulse signal is fed to clock pin 4 of counter IC 74109. Pin 8 of 74109 IC is grounded, pin 16 is connected to Vcc and pin 3 is grounded. The output of 74109 IC is taken from its pin 7. Q1 connected to pin 7 through R3 of IC 74109 drives the relay RL.

The relay is connected through a fan and a regulator.  It gets connected to live terminal of AC mains via normally opened (N/O) contact when the relay energizes. If we want to operate a DC 12 volt relay then we have to use a regulated DC 12 volt power supply for DC 12 volt Relay and we have to remember that the circuit voltage not be exceeded more than DC 5 volts.
Fig: Layout of Remote control regulated Ceiling Fan

JK flipflop/IC 74109:
The 74109 are dual positive-edge triggered, JK  flip-flops with individual J, K inputs, clock (CP) inputs, set (SD) and reset (RD) inputs; also complementary Q and Q outputs.The set and reset are asynchronous active LOW inputs and operate independently of the clock input. The J and K inputs control the state changes of the flip-flops as described in the mode select function table. The JK design allows operation as a T-type flip-flop by tying the J and K inputs together. In the T Flip-flop sequentially if the i/p is 1, the o/p is 1, then o/p is 0 and again 1.

## Tuesday, November 6, 2012

### IR Remote Control Home Appliance Circuit Diagram

This is the most popular IR Remote control circuit for home appliances like lamp, fan, radio, tv etc to make the appliance turn on/off from a TV, VCD or DVD remote control. It is very simple to build because of few components and simple design.
The circuit can activated from up to 10 metres. The 38kHz infrared (IR) rays generated by the remote control are received by IR receiver module TSOP1738 of the circuit. Pin 1 of TSOP1738 is connected to ground, pin 2 is connected to the power supply through resistor R5 and the output is taken from pin 3. The output signal is amplified by transistor T1 (BC558).

The amplified signal is fed to clock pin 14 of decade counter IC CD4017 (IC1). Pin 8 of IC1 is grounded, pin 16 is connected to Vcc and pin 3 is connected to LED1 (red), which glows to indicate that the appliance is ‘off.’ The output of IC1 is taken from its pin 2. LED2 (green) connected to pin 2 is used to indicate the ‘on’ state of the appliance. Transistor T2 (BC548) connected to pin 2 of IC1 drives relay RL1. Diode IN 4148 acts as a freewheeling diode. The appliance to be controlled is connected between the pole of the relay and neutral terminal of mains. It gets connected to live terminal of AC mains via normally opened (N/O) contact when the relay energises. you can use any NPN transistor inplace of BC548. You can also use SL100 or any NPN transistor lying around you.
The delay depends on the C1 capacitor. Using higher value capacitor will create more delay and using less value capacitor will switch the circuit more than 2 times when you press a remote. Analyse the circuit by placing the 10uf capacitor in place of C1 (100uf).